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Yuki Warashina, Ryo Ogaki, Akemi Sawai, Hitoshi Shiraki and Shumpei Miyakawa



This study aimed to elucidate the key risk factors for shoulder pain in Japanese middle school-, high school-, and university-level badminton players and use a regression formula to predict the probability of shoulder pain onset based on risk factor combinations. Based on a self-report questionnaire survey, we included 461 individuals (102 middle school students, 134 high school students, and 225 university students) with a history of shoulder pain in the previous year and 541 individuals with no shoulder pain in the previous year. Then, we performed logistic regression analysis of individual characteristics and history of shoulder pain to analyze the factors associated with shoulder pain onset. Analysis of patients excluding those currently experiencing shoulder pain indicated that a history of shoulder pain (> 1 year previously) predicted shoulder pain onset. Analysis of patients excluding those with a history of shoulder pain indicated that undergoing care, being of university age, having a long history of competing, and short cool-down times were associated with recurrent pain. However, results were different for each age group. The fact that half the Japanese middle school, high school, and university badminton players had a history of shoulder pain suggests that they will experience recurrent shoulder pain. The results also suggest that different factors are important in each age group. Thus, it is critical to establish evidence-based countermeasures to prevent shoulder pain that interferes with play.


Shoulder pain, badminton, questionnaire, epidemiology, logistic regression analysis

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