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Article
Author(s)

Minori Kusaka, Tsuyoshi Setoguchi, Norihiro Watanabe, Zhiming Guo and Anasutasiia Paukaeva

Affiliation(s)

Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8628, Japan

ABSTRACT

There is an urban design problem that outdoor public spaces are not used for long periods of time within a year due to coldness and snow cover in cities with severe winter climates (winter cities). Therefore, an urban design that promotes activities in these spaces is required for winter cities. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between outdoor environmental conditions and the behaviors of people in outdoor public spaces. This six-month study conducted a field survey in six kinds of public spaces in downtown Sapporo and analyzed the changes of microclimates and sitting behaviors in these spaces. The analysis revealed that sitting behaviors decreased with temperature drops during the cooling period (20 °C-8 °C), that sunlight could suppress the reduction in the number of sitting behaviors, and that wind speed could suppress the reduction in the duration of sitting behaviors.

KEYWORDS

Winter city, microclimate, public space, urban open space, actual usage, field measurement, outdoor environment.

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