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Author(s)

Ciaran Haughton, Mary Aiken, Carly Cheevers

Affiliation(s)

RCSI CyberPsychology Research Centre, RCSI Institute of Leadership, Dublin, Ireland

ABSTRACT

Technology is now ubiquitous with almost 3.2 billion people of the world’s current population online (International Telecommunications Union, 2015). Whilst technology offers opportunities for education and entertainment, its impact on vulnerable populations such as the developing infant requires specific, careful consideration. Fourteen percent of infants (aged 6 to 23 months) watch at least two hours of media per day and one third of children under 3 have a television (TV) in their bedroom (Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007a). Twenty-five percent of 3-year-olds go online daily (Bernstein & Levine, 2011) and 28% of 3 to 4-year-olds now use tablet computers (Ofcom, 2014). Children are growing up with a digital foundation, they are interacting with and immersed in cyberspace where they learn, entertain themselves and play. During the first three years of life, the brain creates some 700 new neural connections every second. Synapse formation for key developmental functions such as hearing, language and cognition peak during this time, creating a critical foundation for higher-level functions (Zero to Three, 2015). Very young children are becoming experts at using technology and are true digital natives. Yet what long-term effects will this early exposure have from a developmental perspective? Researchers are now questioning how interactive media may affect children both mentally and physically (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2011; Radesky, Schumacher, & Zuckerman, 2014). Screen time research has traditionally focused on the impact of TV on children (Linebarger & Walker, 2005). However, TV is a passive experience and results may not be applicable compared to highly interactive screen technology such as tablets and smartphones, thus the uniqueness of mobile technology needs to be considered. Experts in Canada, France, Australia, Japan, and South Korea have urged limits on children’s screen time and legislation has recently been introduced in Taiwan to limit children’s unhealthy use of electronic devices (Boseley, 2012; Locker, 2015; Tanimura, Okuma, & Kyoshima, 2007). Research and recommendations are urgently required regarding the impact of technology on infants and very young children, particularly as the effect of traditional and interactive screen time is potentially developmentally and cyberpsychologically significant in this age group.

KEYWORDS

infant development, screen time, technology, education, cyberpsychology

Cite this paper

Ciaran Haughton, Mary Aiken, & Carly Cheevers. (2015). Cyber Babies: The Impact of Emerging Technology on the Developing Infant. Psychology Research, 5(9), 504-518.

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